5 Februari 2013

Pluralism and its relation to good governance in Indonesia

We had the religion but we don’t want diversity. Clearly this is an example of a people who not decent as an Islam people. Because it’s useless if we don’t understand the diversity of the world and everything in it. Science about all over the world that already we got is not going to be useful, if we only know about one thing, Gus Dur-

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That is a sentences delivered by Gusdur quoted in a book entitled 'Gusdur, asyik gitu lho...'. Gusdur known as a father of Pluralism in Indonesia because he has great merit to the development and progress of the nation in terms of religion, democracy and anti-discrimination. Gusdur also a highly respected Islamic thinker in Indonesia and the world. He is also known as an influential figure among Nahdiyin and Indonesian people.
Gusdur Pluralism Style in Indonesia
While serving as president, Gus Dur establish policies that reduce discrimination and asserts glorify of plurality. His merit to the development of society and nation based on democracy really means a lot to the state of Indonesia (Sawabi 2009). Therefore since he served as president of the Republic of Indonesia, Gusdur started making significant changes in Indonesia. Because there is no doubt that Indonesia consists of diverse ethnic and religious communities referred as the diverse state.
In ethnological research, for example, it is known that Indonesia consists of more than 600 ethnic groups with their special identity and different culture. Apart from the life of these tribes are concentrated in certain areas, there is also the concentration of tribes in other places because of migration or due to the rapid mobilization of the population. Through the cencus in 2000, listed 101 ethnic groups in Indonesia with a total population of 201,092,238 people as citizens (Suryadinata 2003, p.102).
But the fact is Indonesia has been not able to truly appreciate the diversity in real life. According to Tilaar (2004, p.90) multiculturalism simply speaking the recognition of cultural pluralism. That cultural pluralism is not a "given" but it is a process of internalization values ​​within a community. Gusdur hold firm and consistent about his religion, in fact we could say that Gusdur being 'intolerance' in theology.
In the attitude of the state and nation, Gusdur show a different attitude. He shows respect for the choices of others religions and beliefs, as realization of the principle freedom of religion and belief. For example, related to the case of Ahmadiyah which Gusdur assume as a wrong, but he said that they must be protected by the law as legal citizens. The statement indicates that the defense of Ahmadiyah more on efforts to protect the group in the life of the nation, not about justify their religion teaching.
Gusdur said that all religions teach goodness and truth to the people. So he did not make any substantial difference from a religion because it concerns own belief in God. This is shown by Gusdur to the public both Muslims and non-Muslims about how to behave towards other religions in the life of the nation. There should be a clear distinction between the private and public areas. Gusdur seemed prefer the unity and peace of the nation with no loss of identity and faith.
Through the views and attitude, the concept of pluralism undertake by Gusdur looks different from the concept that is used as the basic MUI (Indonesian Ulema Council) in establish the fatwa on religious pluralism, liberalism and secularism. The concept of pluralism undertake by Gusdur is not pluralism in the sense of an understanding that recognize all religions as true. However, the concept believe by Gusdur closer to the concept that in society there are social grups organize  themselves and related each other but each grup has a different exsitence.

Pluralism and Social Political in Indonesia
As already explained above that Indonesia is a country of pluralism. It is always related to the socio-political phenomenon. Although the relationship between religion and power different from one religion to another in practice and in his doctrine, but still shows that religion and state power relationship are difficult to remove. According to Daniel Dhakidae (in Ohoitimur 2009) religion become the core of power and the power become the core of religion. So that in Indonesia, religion itself can’tt be separated with the government.
If pluralism is viewed in the theory of good governance, there are shift from "government" to "governance". According Ohitimur (2009) "Govern-ment" and "Governance" is equally related to how the implementation of political, economic administration, etc. in order to the common good of a nation. But "government" means the system in which government have a dominant element in holding political power. In that context, religions need to get closer to the power to participate in his own interest. In the "governance" organization of collective life depends on three pillars, namely state, community (civil society), and the market.
First, the State or the Government which consists of three areas of the executive, judicial, legislative, military, police and those in charge of providing public service. Here the state has the duty to create the political conditions, and social ekonomii stable. With the values ​​of pluralism the goverment build an effective and equitable rules, uphold human rights and the other as his. Second is the community which include community organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), professional associations, religious communities, the media. Society serves as a watchdog that oversees the government. While the state has to create political, economic and social stability and uphold human rights and others. The third is a market that consists of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and financial institutions. Here the market in charge of running the industry, creating jobs and improving people's living standards.
What was run by Gusdur at his time introducing Indonesian society to pluralism, actually contains that values​​. Religion took a position in the civil society that controls the functioning of government. According Ohitimur (2009) the role of religion will be more balanced, in the sense not give bad affect into public interest. Of course, when democracy is increasingly grown so participation, rules of law, transparency and accountability increasingly practiced.
We can also look at the case in the United States, the election of Barack Obama for twice brought great change to the recognition of pluralism in that country. In the United States, pluralism is not concept that confounds every religion, but mutual respect to any difference. It has similarities with Indonesia that has diversity, as well as in United State society with the immigrants who came from outside United State. It can be seen from the case of the WTC, Barack Obama took decision to build a mosque and Islamic center located two blocks from ground zero New York (Arifin 2010). He's sticking to the state constitution entitles to all Americans to establish a place of worship according beliefs respectively.
So in this description can be concluded that Gusdur as the former president of Republic Indonesia has spearheaded Indonesia as a country of pluralism. When the values ​​of pluralism is already beginning to be realized and operated by the people of Indonesia, that will be affects the socio-political situation in Indonesia. Therefore, there is a shift between the goverment to governance. In the "governance" organization of collective life depends on three pillars: state, community (civil society), and the market. When all three in balance then the life of the nation will be balanced between democratic society and religious pluralism in Indonesia.
by Paramadina 
for USIPP 2013